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Definitions

Victim: 

‘All persons who have been killed or suffered physical or psychological injury, economic loss, social marginalisation or substantial impairment of the realisation of their rights caused by an accident with UXO.  They include those persons directly impacted by an accident with UXO as well as their affected families and communities.’

Accidents:

An explosive event involving a UXO and as a result of which at least one person was injured.  UXO accidents in which damage or injury was caused other than to people have not been included in this definition.

Casualty:

A victim who was involved in a UXO accident and either died as a result or survived with injuries.

Clearance:

Tasks or actions to reduce or eliminate Explosive Ordnance (EO) hazards from a specified area.

General Survey:

A survey of an area to provide information about UXO hazards, the effect of any hazards on communities and the gathering of general planning data. General surveys do not involve the searching for UXO using metal detection equipment, or any excavation for or movement of UXO.

Ordnance:

- Explosive Remnants of War (ERW): means unexploded ordnance (UXO) and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO). The appropriate term for the ordnance litter in Lao PDR, which has led to the establishment of UXO Lao and the NRA, is ERW since both AXO and UXO are involved: by long precedent, the problem has been defined through use of the term UXO. Laos has become synonymous with UXO and the main clearance body is named UXO Laos


- Unexploded Ordnance (UXO): explosive ordnance that has been primed, fused, armed, or otherwise prepared for use and used in an armed conflict. It may have been fired, dropped, launched or projected and should have exploded but failed to do so.

Abandoned Explosive Ordnance (AXO):

Explosive ordnance that has not been used during an armed conflict, that has been left behind or dumped by a party to an armed conflict, and which is no longer under control of the party that left it behind or dumped it. Abandoned explosive ordnance may or may not have been primed, fused, armed or otherwise prepared for use.

National UXO/Mine Action Standards:

A series of documented standards, authorised by the NRA that detail requirements, procedures or guidelines for the conduct of UXO/Mine Action within the Lao PDR.

Quality Management (QM):

Coordinated activities to direct and control UXO/Mine Action with regard to quality. QM comprises both Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC):

  1. The purpose of QA in UXO/Mine Action is to confirm that management practices and operational procedures for UXO/Mine Action are appropriate, are being applied and will achieve the stated requirement in a safe, effective and efficient manner.
  2. QC is the part of QM focused on fulfilling quality requirements. QC relates to the inspection of a finished product. In the case of UXO clearance, QC relates to the inspection of land that is cleared or otherwise released for use.

Released Land:

Land that has been presented for clearance, subjected to clearance or technical survey and released to the land owners/users or other relevant authority for its intended use. Released land is not necessarily cleared land.

Survivors:

People, who were involved in an accident with a UXO, were injured and survived the experience: if such people have subsequently died, the death has not been as a direct result of the accident.

Technical Survey:

The detailed technical investigation of known or suspected contaminated areas that have been presented for UXO clearance. Technical survey normally involves the physical checking of areas of land using metal detection equipment and excavation for UXO.

UXO Clearance Operations:

Activities which lead to the removal of UXO hazards; including survey (general and technical); recording; marking; clearance (including mechanical and Explosive Detection Dog (EDD) clearance); UXO disposal; community liaison; and the handover of released land.

UXO clearance operations in Lao PDR may involve either EOD roving tasks or area clearance tasks:

  1. EOD roving tasks target items of UXO, not areas of land.
  2. Area clearance is the systematic clearance of specific UXO contaminated areas where the hazards are known not to include mines. Depending on the required land use, area clearance may involve surface or sub-surface clearance. Sub-surface area clearance that clears land to depths in excess of the 25 cm default depth of clearance is further categorised as deep area clearance.

Note: When physical inspection of cleared land is carried out as part of the Quality Control (QC) process, this also falls into the category of UXO clearance.

Victim:

Explosive Remnants of War: (ERW) means unexploded ordnance (UXO) and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO). The appropriate term for the ordnance litter in the Lao PDR, which has led to the establishment of UXO Lao and the NRA, is ERW since both AXO and UXO are involved:  by long precedent, the problem has been defined through use of the term UXO.  Laos has become synonymous with UXO and the main clearance body is named UXO Laos.

Victim Assistance:

All aid, relief, comfort and support provided to victims with the purpose of reducing the immediate and long-term medical, economic, social and psychological implications of their trauma.